Concepto

SPHY (Spatial Processes in Hydrology) es un modelo conceptual de equilibrio de agua tipo «”cubeta con fugas” espacialmente distribuido (en formato raster). El modelo integra procesos hidrológicos dominantes como (i) lluvia-escorrentía; (ii) salida del lago / embalse, (iii) procesos criosféricos (nieve, hielo, glaciares) (iv) evapotranspiración y (v) procesos hidrológicos del suelo. El modelo SPHY se ha desarrollado y actualizado constantemente combinando los mejores componentes de modelos de simulación existentes y bien probados: SRM, VIC, HydroS, SWAT, PCR-GLOBWB, SWAP y HimSim. SPHY incluye procesos hidrológicos terrestres relevantes a escalas flexibles (local, regional y global), bajo diversos cambios en el uso del suelo, escenarios climáticos y climáticos extremos. Una visión general de los conceptos del modelo SPHY se muestra en la Figura 1.

Figura 1. Descripción conceptual del modelo SPHY.

La conservación de masa es el concepto subyacente principal utilizado en el modelo SPHY. Los procesos hidrológicos dominantes están definidos por los conjuntos físicos de ecuaciones y parámetros. SPHY utiliza un enfoque de variabilidad de subcuadrícula para la representación adecuada de los procesos que actúan a escalas espaciales más finas. Una celda puede estar libre de glaciares, parcialmente con glaciares o completamente cubierta por glaciares. La celda sin glaciares puede ser de diferente tipo de uso del suelo. La variabilidad de la subcuadrícula está determinada principalmente por la cobertura de vegetación fraccional, que afecta procesos como la intercepción, la precipitación efectiva y la evapotranspiración potencial.

La columna suelo / tierra se divide en dos almacenamientos superiores de suelo y un tercer almacenamiento de agua subterránea, con sus componentes de drenaje correspondientes: escorrentía superficial, flujo lateral y flujo base. La fusión del hielo de los glaciares contribuye a la descarga del río por medio de un componente lento y rápido, siendo (i) la filtración al depósito de agua subterránea que eventualmente se convierte en flujo base, y (ii) la escorrentía directa.

El modelo simula el comportamiento dinámico de los glaciares mediante la incorporación de procesos clave como la acumulación, la ablación y la transferencia de masa de hielo de la zona de acumulación a la ablación. Si el glaciar está perdiendo masa, el hielo de la zona de ablación se redistribuirá sobre la zona de ablación de acuerdo con el volumen de redistribución de hielo.

Además, SPHY incluye un módulo de lago que realiza un seguimiento de la altura del nivel del lago y el almacenamiento en cada paso de tiempo de la simulación del modelo. El módulo del lago utiliza un esquema avanzado para enrutar el flujo desde las celdas del lago hacia las regiones aguas abajo. Además, SPHY utiliza un módulo de erosión que calcula la erosión del suelo debido al impacto de las gotas de lluvia, el flujo terrestre y el flujo del río.

No hay un mejor modelo disponible que sea adecuado para todo tipo de aplicaciones. La elección del modelo depende del objetivo general del proyecto. Sin embargo, SPHY se destaca en comparación con otros modelos debido a su amplia gama de funcionalidades como:

Escala espacial

El modelo SPHY se puede aplicar a rangos flexibles de escalas espaciales como granjas de pequeña escala, subcuencas y cuencas de mediana escala y aplicaciones regionales y globales a gran escala. SPHY ayuda al usuario a comprender mejor las diferencias espaciales y la variabilidad del proceso hidrológico clave. Además, el modelo se puede ejecutar en diferentes escalas espaciales para diferentes procesos dentro de la misma simulación. Por ejemplo, el glaciar se puede ejecutar con una resolución de 50 metros, mientras que la resolución del modelo es de 1000 metros.

Escala temporal

El modelo SPHY se puede aplicar de pasos sub-diarios a diarios, semanales, mensuales y anuales dependiendo de las variaciones diarias de los procesos hidrológicos clave y la disponibilidad de datos.

Adaptabilidad

El modelo SPHY se puede adaptar fácilmente para su uso en diferentes condiciones climáticas en todo el mundo. Esto es muy útil si el usuario está estudiando procesos hidrológicos en regiones donde no todos los procesos hidrológicos son relevantes. Un usuario puede, por ejemplo, estar interesado en estudiar los requisitos de agua de riego en África central. Para esta región, los procesos de fusión de glaciares y nieve son irrelevantes y, por lo tanto, se pueden desconectar. Otro usuario solo puede estar interesado en simular las condiciones de humedad en la primera capa de suelo, lo que permite la posibilidad de desconectar los módulos de enrutamiento y de agua subterránea.

Requisito de datos

Un usuario puede usar cualquiera de las observaciones terrestres, como datos hidrológicos: descargas, datos criosféricos: cobertura de nieve, balance de masa de glaciares, datos de cultivos: coeficientes de cultivos estáticos, índice de área foliar, información de lagos y embalses, etc., si están disponibles para una mejor representación y mejorar la precisión del modelo. El modelo se puede suministrar con datos en un enfoque parsimonioso y hambriento de datos, dependiendo de la disponibilidad de datos en la región.

La facilidad de uso

El modelo SPHY es fácil de usar y puede ser aplicado por cualquier persona que tenga un conocimiento general sobre los procesos hidrológicos clave. Se puede proporcionar una serie temporal constante o estocástica estática o mapas ráster más complejos como entradas al modelo según lo especificado por el usuario. Además, el modelo SPHY proporciona una gran cantidad de datos de salida que se pueden seleccionar en función de las preferencias del usuario. La salida espacial se puede presentar como mapas espaciales de todos los procesos hidrológicos. Estos mapas se pueden generar a diario, pero también los agregados en períodos mensuales o anuales. Se pueden generar series de tiempo para cada ubicación en el área de estudio según lo especificado por el usuario.

Aplicaciones FutureWater

FutureWater emplea el modelo SPHY en varios contextos y aplicaciones. El modelo de elección depende de cada proyecto y análisis requerido. Las siguientes son las áreas clave de la aplicación del modelo SPHY.

Cambios hidrológicos pasados ​​y futuros

SPHY se ha aplicado en numerosos proyectos para evaluar los regímenes hidrológicos históricos y los cambios futuros en el mismo. El modelo se ha utilizado en proyectos HICAP y HI-AWARE para comprender los aspectos clave de los cambios históricos y futuros en los regímenes hidrológicos de las principales cuencas hidrográficas en el sudeste de Asia y Asia central. Además, el proyecto HI-AWARE explora los cambios en los extremos hidro-climáticos (inundaciones y sequías) en la región. Además, en PanTPE , SPHY se utiliza para explorar los cambios climáticos para el desarrollo ecológico del Cinturón Económico de la Ruta de la Seda (SREB) en la región del tercer polo.

Manejo de cuenca

SPHY se ha utilizado en este ‘Cuenca Planificación Estratégica cuenca del río Ganges’ proyecto para entender las interacciones tierra-agua subterránea en la cuenca para refinar el modelado río. El proyecto utiliza una información de flujo ambiental de múltiples escalas a través de la cuenca y utiliza estas evaluaciones para proporcionar retroalimentación al modelado de escenarios. El proyecto también explora una serie de escenarios plausibles que exploran opciones alternativas para mejorar la gestión del agua, incluida la mejora de la salud del río utilizando SPHY.

Manejo de riego

SPHY se ha aplicado para el asesoramiento de riego a pequeña escala, a nivel de finca agrícola en países como el oeste de Rumania y Angola . El sistema consiste en datos in situ sobre el contenido de humedad en el suelo y cálculos con SPHY en la zona radicular y el subsuelo superficial.

Previsión de flujo

SPHY se ha aplicado para el propósito de pronóstico de flujo operativo en una cuenca en Chile. En este proyecto , SPHY se ha utilizado en un sistema integrado, que utilizaba mediciones derivadas de satélites de observación de la Tierra y sensores in situ, para pronosticar el flujo estacional de la corriente durante la temporada de deshielo.

Degradación y restauración de la tierra

SPHY se ha utilizado en Madagascar para la toma de decisiones integrada para la gestión del paisaje en Madagascar a través de datos espaciales mejorados sobre la degradación de la tierra, y mediante el desarrollo de plataformas prototipo para simular, evaluar y reorientar, según corresponda, los procesos de cambio y uso de la tierra.

Energía

SPHY se ha utilizado en varios países de Georgia , Indonesia , Kenia , Tanzania , Nepal para evaluar los cambios en los flujos futuros de la corriente para el desarrollo de la energía hidroeléctrica. Estos proyectos exploran el uso del suelo y el impacto del cambio climático en los flujos de las corrientes para que los desarrolladores de energía hidroeléctrica los utilicen más a fondo para evaluar la viabilidad técnica y financiera de los proyectos en un clima cambiante.

Extremos hidroclimáticos y eventos compuestos

El modelo SPHY se ha utilizado en varios proyectos de investigación científica como SYSTEM-RISK e IMPREX para explorar un enfoque de sistemas para la evaluación y gestión del riesgo de inundación a gran escala debido a eventos extremos compuestos.

Para obtener más información sobre el proyecto y otras aplicaciones, visite http://www.sphy.nl/.

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