Concepto

A medida que avanza la tecnología, los satélites ofrecen cada vez más una fuente confiable de información distribuida espacialmente sobre una variedad de variables ambientales. Al utilizar las propiedades reflectantes de la superficie y la atmósfera de la tierra, es posible controlar (entre otros) la cobertura vegetal, la lluvia, la capa de nieve, la temperatura de la superficie terrestre y la evapotranspiración real a través del tiempo. Los sensores como Landsat ETM, MODIS, PROBA-V y Sentinel ofrecen una gama de opciones en diferentes escalas espaciales y temporales. FutureWater utiliza conjuntos de datos de acceso abierto en estudios de consultoría, para sistemas operativos de soporte de decisiones, y para alimentar, calibrar y validar modelos hidrológicos.

Los satélites ahora proporcionan un archivo de imágenes que cubre varias décadas. Estos registros históricos nos permiten identificar tendencias y patrones espaciales en diferentes factores asociados con la gestión de los recursos hídricos, como el suministro de agua, el consumo de agua y el crecimiento de los cultivos. Los cambios en la cubierta de la tierra, como la deforestación y la expansión agrícola, pueden mapearse y cuantificarse en evaluaciones de los servicios del ecosistema y la degradación de la tierra. Mediante el uso de herramientas de última generación como Google Earth Engine, analizamos estas tendencias y patrones para ayudar a los responsables políticos a identificar medidas apropiadas en diferentes ubicaciones en su área de interés. Además, FutureWater considera que los conjuntos de datos derivados de satélites son esenciales para maximizar la calidad de salida de los modelos de simulación para apoyar a los tomadores de decisiones, particularmente en áreas con escasez de datos.

Aunque los satélites solo pueden proporcionar información sobre la situación pasada, una combinación inteligente de sensores remotos y modelos de simulación proporciona una perspectiva integrada sobre la disponibilidad de agua histórica, actual y futura. Los gobiernos, las autoridades de cuenca, los agricultores y las compañías hidroeléctricas están interesados ​​en anticiparse a eventos futuros tomando medidas oportunas y específicas. La alimentación de modelos hidrológicos con las imágenes de satélite más recientes en un contexto operativo permite la construcción de pronósticos a corto plazo basados ​​en las condiciones actuales actuales. Varios satélites pasan con bastante frecuencia, lo que hace que sus datos sean especialmente útiles para los sistemas operativos de soporte de decisiones. Recopilamos estos datos tan pronto como estén disponibles, los procesamos utilizando nuestros modelos y difundimos la información resultante al usuario final del sistema. Las imágenes actualizadas derivadas de satélites proporcionan información sobre las condiciones reales relacionadas con los recursos hídricos y la vegetación, sin tener que visitar el campo.

Aplicaciones FutureWater

En la mayoría de nuestros proyectos, FutureWater utiliza la teledetección satelital para uno o más de los propósitos descritos anteriormente. Algunos ejemplos se dan a continuación.

FutureWater ha desarrollado una herramienta de monitoreo y evaluación de impacto de sequías llamado “Drought Monitoring and Impact Assessment Toolbox” (DMIAT) para caracterizar áreas propensas a la sequía en términos de amenaza, vulnerabilidad y riesgo de sequía, así como evaluar los impactos de un evento de sequía específico. La imagen presenta el Índice de Amenaza de sequía integrado para dos provincias en Camboya y dos en Tailandia; el resultado de un extenso análisis basado en la teledetección que involucra estadísticas de lluvia espacial, estadísticas de cobertura vegetal y temperatura de la superficie de la tierra. Puede encontrar más información sobre el proyecto aquí.

FutureWater utiliza la teledetección en las evaluaciones de los servicios de los ecosistemas, en particular los relacionados con el agua (consulte el documento técnico sobre este tema dirigido por FutureWater). Los datos satelitales se pueden integrar con modelos de simulación para cuantificar los servicios del ecosistema, como la contribución del agua durante la estación seca. El mapa muestra la cuenca del lago Inle en Myanmar, un área donde el suministro de agua en la estación seca es muy importante para mantener los niveles del lago, proporcionar agua para el consumo doméstico y agrícola, y apoyar la producción de energía hidroeléctrica. Al integrar diferentes fuentes de datos satelitales y el modelo de servicios del ecosistema InVEST, FutureWater mapeó los servicios del ecosistema en la región del Lago Inle para apoyar la toma de decisiones sobre políticas de conservación de la naturaleza por una autoridad de gestión de cuenca recientemente creada. Puede encontrar más información sobre el proyecto aquí.

La combinación de datos de teledetección con modelos de simulación también puede admitir estrategias de gestión sostenible de la tierra (SLM). En áreas con datos de campo escasamente disponibles, los satélites son a menudo la única fuente disponible para proporcionar datos actualizados, desglosados espacialmente. El mapa a la izquierda muestra la tasa de erosión promedio anual de la cuenca de Bealanana en Madagascar, producida diariamente por el modelo SPHY. El alto nivel de detalle espacial de este mapa es posible gracias a la integración de conjuntos de datos derivados de satélites sobre la dinámica de la vegetación, la cobertura del suelo y el terreno. Con un modelo de simulación confiable, validado, entre otros, por datos de evapotranspiración derivados de satélites, es posible ejecutar diferentes escenarios de SLM y evaluar el impacto en la erosión y el rendimiento de sedimentos, p. medidas de reforestación, agroforestería y terrazas. Puede encontrar más información sobre el proyecto aquí.

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