Desafío

La ocurrencia de períodos de déficit de lluvia (sequías) combinados con los desequilibrios entre la disponibilidad de recursos hídricos y las altas tasas de explotación y consumo pueden poner en peligro la seguridad hídrica y alimentaria de muchas regiones del mundo. Esto es especialmente relevante en las regiones semiáridas y subhúmedas donde reside más del 40% de la población mundial. De acuerdo con los informes del IPCC, se espera que los riesgos provocados por estos fenómenos se intensifiquen debido al cambio climático y los escenarios de crecimiento de la población. La reducción de la vulnerabilidad de las economías regionales y locales mediante guías para la adopción de prácticas más sostenibles de uso del suelo y del riego, junto con mejores estrategias de asignación de agua, es la piedra angular del enfoque de FutureWater en su intento de promover una transición suave hacia economías más adaptativas y resilientes a los efectos del cambio global.

Enfoque FutureWater

El enfoque de FutureWater en materia de escasez hídrica y sequías pivota sobre dos pilares básicos:

  1. Brindar evaluaciones de riesgo climático y vulnerabilidad basados en enfoques novedosos y trasparentes (por ejemplo, el Marco de Árbol de Decisión desarrollado por el Banco Mundial) para identificar los principales impulsores de la escasez de agua y su papel en la generación de impactos socioeconómicos y ambientales Estos análisis son extremadamente útiles para informar sobre inversiones, priorizar actuaciones y asesorar sobre políticas de gestión y adaptación, y pueden abordarse en múltiples dominios espaciales, desde el nivel de parcela y distrito de riego hasta cuencas hidrográficas y grandes regiones.
  2. Desarrollar sistemas de soporte de decisiones que combinen herramientas operacionales de seguimiento de variables ambientales obtenidas de satélites y redes sociales, con capacidades de pronóstico estacional y de modelación hidrológica y asignación de agua, y los conocimientos científicos más avanzados en la materia. Los Sistemas de Soporte a la Decisión de sequía y escasez de agua de FW integran todos estos componentes en InfoSequia, una caja de herramientas desarrollada ad-hoc para optimizar el procesamiento de datos en la nube, y su consulta e interpretación de manera precisa, rápida y transparente para el usuario final.

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